Emerging Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases

Many emerging infectious diseases have caused concern in recent years, particularly those highly contagious. These include SARS-CoV-2, Measles, and Influenza virus. While many people are concerned about these infectious diseases, some steps can be taken to reduce their risk of contracting them.


Measles is one of the most contagious diseases in the world. It is spread through coughing and sneezing. The disease is very dangerous and can result in serious complications. In particular, children under five are at higher risk of developing measles.

A person with measles usually has a fever, coughing, and a rash. The rash usually appears on the face and can last up to six days. After this period, the rash fades.

People with measles may also develop ear infections and pneumonia. These can lead to long-term health problems. Pneumonia is the leading cause of measles-related death in children. In particular, children under five are at higher risk of developing measles.

One out of every 20 children with measles develops complications requiring hospitalization. Other symptoms of measles include a high fever, cough, and red and watery eyes.


Infectious diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2, are a public health threat to global society. They result in substantial economic costs and substantial human suffering. These diseases are caused by various infectious agents that originate from wild and domestic animals. The risk of emergence and spillover into humans is heightened in the twenty-first century due to global change.

Human population density is increasing, while human mobility is also increasing. This increase in population density and mobility may create more opportunities for pathogens to emerge and spread. These changes will likely affect disease dynamics in local and global populations.

Influenza virus

The World Health Organization warned in 2007 that infectious diseases were re-emerging at an unprecedented rate. These re-emerging infections represent new strains of previously known disease-causing organisms. Some of these pathogens can be zoonotic, passing between animals and humans. Others, like HIV and rabies, can transmit from human to human.

During the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, the swine flu virus mutated and passed easily between people. This allowed the infection to spread worldwide. While the H1N1 virus caused less severe illnesses than the avian H5N1 virus, it still threatened human health.

Other emerging infectious diseases include the Zika virus, West Nile virus, dengue fever, hantavirus, and HIV. Each of these pathogens has the potential to cause an outbreak.

Re-emerging pathogens

A re-emerging pathogen is an infectious disease that has re-emerged in a population or region for the first time. The term describes diseases that have previously been identified but have re-emerged because they have gained drug resistance, changed the nature of the disease-causing microbe, or have not been properly vaccinated.

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have been defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as diseases that have increased in incidence over the past two decades. These diseases are known to have a significant social impact. They have been responsible for outbreaks of high morbidity and mortality. Historically, EIDs have had explosive growth and are associated with high morbidity.

Project Bioshield

The BioShield project is a federal government initiative to develop medical countermeasures to combat emerging infectious diseases. The program aims to create a safer, more reliable, and less expensive way to prevent and respond to these threats.

According to the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness and Advancing Innovation Act, the Special Reserve Fund for Project BioShield has been reauthorized. This fund will continue to provide funding for the development of medical countermeasures.

Since 2004, the program has been active and has developed countermeasures that protect against the threats of biothreat agents. It has also increased the availability of biological agent vaccines. A major goal of the program is to increase the availability of effective countermeasures against CBRN agents.